This week we explored the question of gender identity. At the end of this week, you should be able to outline and evaluate the main biological, cognitive and socio-cultural arguments. Please be sure to read through the notes that are available on the Inthinking site to make sure that you have a good overall understanding of each level of analysis. I would recommend that for each argument, that you have 2 to 3 pieces of research that you could outline and discuss.
Here is one final video on gender that you may find interesting.
We have one final set of learning objectives that we have to complete for this unit. Next week – it’s all about adolescence!
This week we finished our rough drafts of our IA. Almost time to celebrate!
Please remember that your final drafts are due on December 6th. You must send the Word doc to me by email for final proofing before you print out a color printed copy. Please be sure to meet all formatting rules as per the style guide and systematically respond to the feedback that you received. I may not look at another draft and I may only answer question with regard to the meaning of the comments that I have written.
Next week we have to get back to development. We will be looking at the origin of gender identity. Please be sure that you have watched the film on David Reimers before Tuesday’s class.
This is a two-week summary since last week I was gone on Friday. Last week we finished our look at the role of deprivation on child development; this week we looked at the role of resilience. Here are the big ideas that you should be able to discuss at the end of these two weeks:
- What are the biological factors that explain the effects of institutionalization on children? Discuss the role of glucocorticoids and oxytocin.
- Discuss Bowlby’s Sensitive Period. How does this relate to the study of Romanian orphans?
- Define resilience. What are the difficulties in carrying out research on resilience?
- Explain one biological marker that may help us to predict an individual’s resilience. What are the limitations of this argument?
- What role does Social Learning Programs – like Big Brothers/ Big Sisters play in building resilience? Can you outline the Tierney et al study?
- What role does cognitive restructuring play in building resilience? Be able to discuss theorists like Albert Ellis (ABC theory), Viktor Frankl (the importance of meaning) and Steven Weine (testimonial therapy).
Good work this week in our discussion of the disaster in the Philippines. This type of application of what we are learning in class is exactly the goal of IB Psychology – making you into better critical thinkers. Keep up the good work.
Next week – it’s all about IA……
This week we returned from a rather long October holiday and made a lot of progress.
By now, you should have all submitted your introduction for your internal assessment. In addition, we looked at the effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.
- Deprivation is defined as living in a state of various forms of neglect to provide basic needs. Our focus was on institutionalization.
- Discuss the early research by Spitz and his concept of hospitalism.
- Describe several effects that appear to be correlated with ACE’s (adverse childhood experiences).
- Explain what is meant by “Type D Attachment.”
- Describe the physiological effects that were seen in Romanian orphans in 1989.
- Outline the study done by Rutter et al on the Romanian orphans.
This week we explored the question of early attachment and its effects on development. At the end of this week you should be able to discuss:
- What are some of the criticisms of Ainsworth’s Strange Situation test?
- Discuss the findings of Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg (1988) with regard to attachment styles cross-culturally.
- Compare and contrast the studies by Bowlby (1946) and Rutter (1981) on delinquency.
- Discuss Bowlby’s theory of the “Internal Working Model.” According to Hazan & Shaver (1987) or Rusbult et al, (1991) how does this affect our later relationships?
To go a bit further with the question of touch and human development here is a (rather oddly staged) video with researcher Tiffany Field who has looked at touch therapy and development of premature babies.
This week we did a lot of “hands on” learning: observations in the preschool and our parent cafe. You have also been reading and working on essay outlines. Here are some of the key ideas that came out of this week in E block. F block, this is a preview for you.
- Attachment is the development of mutual and intense emotional relationship between an infant and its caregivers.
- Freud and the Behaviourists argued that the bond between a mother and child is the result of the fact that the mother feeds the child. This is known as the Cupboard theory.
- Harry Harlow challenged this belief with his study of monkeys. He showed that contact comfort played a role in the bond between mother and child.
- Ainworth identified three types of attachment in her Strange Situation Test.
Next week we are going to delve deeply into attachment research and also go over our essay outlines. Time to start getting ready for an in class essay….
This is actually a two week summary with me away a good part of last week. Remember that all class notes are available on the class drive. Please be sure that you can discuss the following topics:
- What are the difficulties of studying the effect of poverty on cognitive development?
- Can you describe at least two studies of the role of poverty on cognitive development?
- Outline research on the role of stimulation in one’s environment on development.
In addition to those three big ideas, we have also looked at the role of nutrition on cognitive development. Remember that
- A significant amount of research seems to indicate that “brain foods” may prevent memory decline in old age. They have not been shown to make children “smarter.”
- The old theory of “Main Effect” has been shown to be incorrect. Children are much more resilient than originally believed.
- The modern theory of the effects of nutrition on cognitive development looks at biological, cognitive and social factors.
You may find the following video helpful in pulling a lot of this week’s ideas together.
Sent to me by Aydin Shahidi….
This week’s focus was on the nature of play, wrapping up our study of Vygotsky. Here are the key concepts from this week that you should be able to discuss:
- Play is the way that children interact with their environment. They learn through this interaction as active participants.
- Directed play with a “more knowledgeable other” in the Zone of Proximal Development leads to learning and development of schema.
- The way children play develops as they mature. You should know the difference between some of the stages of play.
- There are gender differences in play, with boys more focused on rule-oriented play.
- There are also cultural differences, with competition often being absent in games played in hunter-gatherer societies.
Here is a good summary of what we have done so far with regard to Vygotsky’s theory.
I apologize to all my Russian students for how this American teacher pronounces Vygotsky’s name…