This week we looked the origins of emotion. At the end of this week you should be able to talk about the following concepts:
Emotions may have an evolutionary advantage for humans.
Facial expressions may be universal, showing us that there are biological roots for basic emotions.
In spite of Ekman’s research, there are cultural factors that can affect emotional responses.
Cognitive labeling is one of the key theories of emotions, as seen in the study by Speisman.
You should also be able to describe Schachter & Singer’s study – and also be able to discuss its ethical and procedural issues.
When we get back, we have only two studies to look at: Schachter & Singer’s study of the Two Factor Theory and then LeDoux’s explanation of how the brain explains what is happening – and a study by Susan Fiske.
The remainder of our semester will be spent on the Biological Level of Analysis and we will practice our final research method – the interview.
This week we examined the effect of emotion on memory – looking at research on reconstructive memory and the question of the reliability of so-called “Flashbulb Memories.” From this week, you should know the following research:
Support for the reliability of memory:
Brown & Kulik’s original study.
Yuille & Cutshall’s Vancouver robbery study
Bahrick et al’s yearbook study
Support that memory is not reliable:
Bartlett’s War of Ghosts study.
Neisser’s study of the Challenger disaster
Crombag’s study of the KLM disaster
Loftus’s studies on reconstructive memory (post-event interference)
Please watch the video clip below. This is the famous “Lost in the Mall Study” done by Elizabeth Loftus.
Next week we will wrap up Flashbulb memory by seeing if there is any biological evidence to support it. Yes, biology is in your near future!
This week we returned to discuss our final memory model for this year – the Working Memory Model (Baddely & Hitch, 1974). At this point, you should know the key components of the model: the central executive, the episodic buffer, the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. For a more in-depth explanation, here is a rather dry – but helpful – tutorial
The model is considered overly simplistic. Is there really only one STM store? If so, how can we explain multi-tasking? And remember all those different types of LTM? Procedural, semantic, etc? Different types of strokes appear to impair different forms of LTM.
The model does not explain memory distortion.
The model also does not explain the role of emotion in the creation of memory or why we don’t remember something in spite of rigorous rehearsal.