This week we returned to biology for a little while in order to finish our discussions on human relationships by looking at sexuality. Remember, the following studies are useful for Paper I.
LeVay’s study of the role of the INAH3 nucleus in the hypothalamus. This demonstrates localization of function.
Gorsky’s research on the role of testosterone on sexual behaviour. This demonstrates the role of hormones on behaviour.
Bailey & Pillard’s research on the role of genetics on sexuality.
We also discussed the theory that the more sons, the more likely that the younger one will be gay may have biological roots – as the mother’s own immune system fights against the y chromosome in her womb. This may result in lower levels of testosterone which then may be a factor in homosexual behaviour. This is also based on research that indicates that gay men tend to have lower levels of testosterone.
We also looked at the following theories. For each theory, you should be able to discuss why they are problematic.
Freud’s Oedipal Complex and the issue of the “missing father.”
Bem’s application of Social Identity Theory and the eroticization of same sex.
Cultural constructs of sexuality and the role of gender schema theory.
We also examined evaluative strategies.
The reductionist nature of the arguments.
The difficulty of measuring the “gay” construct. Sexuality is defined differently cross-culturally as well as within cultures. We looked at the fafafine of Samoa as an example.
The question of researcher bias (LeVay)
It is questionable whether animal research (Gorsky) explains human sexuality.
Much of the research is correlational in nature.
The ethics of doing true experiments with pre-natal development.
Recruitment of samples – especially cross-cultural samples – has historically proven very difficult.
This week we looked at our mock exams, revised for Paper 3 and looked at why relationships fall apart. At this end of this week, you should be able to answer the following questions based on this rather eclectic week.
What we reviewed after the mocks:
What is meant by “social and/or cultural factors” when asked in an IB question?
What are the strengths and limitations of using a case study?
What are the three types of triangulation that we discussed?
Why does triangulation increase credibility?
Why relationships end:
According to Duck, relationships are a set of agreed upon rules and routines. How does this definition relate to how relationships end?
How do the following theories explain why relationships end? Social Exchange Theory; Fatal Attraction Theory; Social Penetration Theory; Rusbult’s theory of accommodation.
Here is John Gottman speaking on why relationships end. A good presentation that adds to our class discussions.
This week we continued our discussion of relationships by looking at the role of communication in relationships. You should be able to discuss many of the following concepts/theories:
According to Aronson, two factors in how we communicate are authenticity and congruence. For example, using flattery which is not congruent with an individual’s person of him/herself may result in the “ingratiating effect.”
Self-disclosure is seen as an important factor in maintaining relationships. Be sure that you can describe and evaluate the Social Penetration Theory.
Tannen‘s research shows that there are different styles of communication used by men and women, and this can lead to communication breakdown in a relationship.
Gottman shows that the non-verbal communication in a relationship may be the best determinant of the potential health and longevity of a relationship. Facial expressions of disgust and contempt are signs that the relationship is in trouble.
Take a look at this lecture by Gottman called “The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.” A rather dramatic title, but he looks at the four factors that he feels lead to the breakdown of relationships.
Next week we have the mock exam. When you get back from February break, we will discuss why relationships fall apart and the origins of sexuality before moving onto our final topic – violence. Both of these topics will be a good way for us to review biological arguments and extend our understanding of human relationships.
At the end of this week, you should be able to discuss the following factors in human attraction:
The role of neurotransmitters (research: Fisher)
Evolutionary arguments for attraction (Buss, Wedekind, Low)
Marquart’s study on the universality of human attraction
Here is a good video of Helen Fisher explaining her own research on neurotransmission and following in love. Once you get past the story about the temples in Tiqal, the research is quite interesting.
For each of the biological theories, you should be able to apply critical thinking and explain some of the inherent difficulties of studying human relationships. In addition, you should know the limitations of evolutionary arguments. Next week we will wrap up evolutionary arguments and move on to cognitive arguments of attraction.
This week we looked more closely at helping behaviour. We focused on the following theories:
Exchange theories that look at costs and benefits. This included the research by Isen & Clark’s studies of the role of feeling good on helping.
Latané argues that it is multifactorial in the Social Impact Theory – arguing that helping is a function of SIN – strength/immediacy/number.
The role of situational factors rather than dispositional factors that influence behaviour. This was seen in the classic “Good Samaritan Study.”
Finally, we looked at the role of culture in helping. You should be sure to read over the research by Levine on cross-cultural studies of helping. You may also want to read through these notes: Helping across cultures.
Please note that there are several links here to Paper I. Making those links are important in that it cuts down on what you need to prepare for your exams. For example, the Good Samaritan Study is a good example of the role of dispositional vs. situational factors on behaviour.
This week we introduced the ideas of pro-social behaviour and altruism. You should be sure to do the reading that was assigned so that we can quickly go over the relevant theories. Be sure to understand that there are biological theories of altruism as well as psychological arguments. The biological theories include kin theory and the theory of mutual reciprocity; the psychological theories include Cialdini’s Negative State Relief Model and Batson’s Empathy-Altruism theory. For each theory, you should be able to outline the strengths and limitations of the theory and its support.